shakespeare – plots


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PLOTS – PDF shakespeares-works

Hamlet – Appearance vs. Reality –Hamlet is one of Shakespeare’s greatest plays. It is a play about the young prince of Denmark, Hamlet, who must uncover the truth about his fathers death. As the play goes on he finds out that his father was murdered by the recently crowned king, his uncle Claudius. The constant theme of the play is appearance versus reality. Things within the play appear to be true and honest but in reality are infested with evil. Many of the characters within the play hide behind a mask of falseness. Four of the main characters that hid behind this mask are Polonius, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and the king Cluadius. From behind this mask they give the impression of people sincere and genuine, but they are plagued with lies and evil. There appearance will make it very difficult for Hamlet to uncover the truth, the characters hide behind. Polonius the kings royal assistant always wants to keep up the appearance of loving and caring person to his daughter, Ophelia, and to his son, Laertes. The reality is he only speaks to appear sincere as a politician, to look good rather then actually be good: “And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. This above all: to thine own self be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst not then be false to any man. Farewell; my blessing season this in thee!” Act 1. Polonius gives his son Laertes his blessing to go away, but he sends a spy to follow and keep an eye on him. Polonius further adds to the theme appearance verses reality by ordering Ophelia to stop seeing Hamlet. He lies to her telling her that Hamlet does not love her, he only lusts for her, in truth he does love her: Ay, springes to catch woodcocks. I do know, When the blood burns , how prodigal the soul Through the play Polonius hids behind his mask appearing to be honest loving parent. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are two of Hamlets childhood friends who when asked by the king, try to find out what is troubling the young prince. Both help to contribute to the theme by showing of being Hamlets friends. The pair go to Hamlet pretending to be his friends when in truth they are only there because the king asked them to find the truth. There is some irony within the twins, they are asked by the king to find out the truth by hiding within a lie, by pretending to be his friend: A dream is but a shadow Act II. Hamlet knows that their real purpose is to dig into his soul to find the truth about his actions. As the play continues the twins are asked again by the king to go to Hamlet and try again to find the real reason for Hamlets behaviour. Hamlet insults them at every chance knowing they are lying to him about there purpose of the visit: Tis as easy as lying; govern these ventages with you finger and thumb, give it breath with your mouth…Act III – Claudius the king of Denmark conduct in council gives him the appearance of an Honest and honourable man. In Act one scene two Claudius in the presence of council shows his true skill and ease of manner at speaking. Claudius speaks well of the spent king by showing a general love for him by all his subjects. Claudius show respect for the old sovereign by speaking kind words of him. In reality he cares little for the old king, he speaks kindly only to give the appearance of loving brother. Though yet of Hamlet our dear brother’s death The memory be green, and that it us befitted To bear our hearts in grief, and our whole kingdom To be contracted in one brow of woe Act I Claudius speaks with Hamlet seeming to be concerned with him. He gives advice that over grieving is not healthy, this shows a concern for Hamlets well being. This conduct of Claudius gives him the appearance of being kind in front of council that accepts him even more for his family values: How is it that the clouds still hang on you? Act I Claudius appears to be even more caring when insulted by Hamlet he still shows love and general care for Hamlet. A normal king would have become angry and Hamlet would have got into trouble. Claudius shows the council that he is understanding of Hamlet’s grief over his father: A little more than kin, and less than kind. Act I . Claudius gives Hamlet advice that over grieving can be harmful and not healthy. Claudius tells Hamlet that he is an admirable person for grieving for so long over his dads death. Yet again Claudius keeps putting on the appearance of the honourable man. Claudius further makes it difficult to uncover the truth by announcing that Hamlet is next in line for the throne of Denmark. This shows that Claudius would let Hamlet become the next king when he is gone. This reveals a love and care for Hamlet to the council and Gertrude making Claudius appear to be kind, loving person: You are the most immediate to our throne; And with no less nobility of love Act I Claudius final conduct that makes him a difficult truth to uncover, is his care and want that Hamlet remain in Denmark. Claudius is insulted by Hamlet, he asks Hamlet to stay only that his queen Gertrude wants Hamlet to stay. Claudius appears to be concerned with Hamlets well being, Gertrude and council see this ,making Claudius a more deserving person to be king.Polonius, Rosencrantz (Guildenstern) and the king all appear to be good and honest. As Hamlet finds out, all contain lies and have hidden intentions within them. As each character is presented in the play all appear to be good and honest making it a difficult task for Hamlet to uncover the hidden truth about the nature of each character. As Hamlet best said it something is rotten in Denmark That being the lies which have replaced or covered the true state of each character.

Macbeth – Macbeth’s friends Banquo when they meet three witches. They predict that Macbeth will be Thane of Cawdor and then king while Banquo’s sons will be kings. A messenger from the King arrives and calls Macbeth Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth is puzzled by the truthfulness of the prediction. When king Duncan decides to stay at Macbeth’s castle, he kills him with the help of his wife. Duncan’s sons escape. Macbeth is elected king, but the prophecy continues to worry him. He sends two killers to murder Banquo and his son, Fleance, but Fleance escapes. From this moment on Macbeth’ s career of crimes and murders has no end. When he orders to murder Lady Macduff and her children, Macduff, Duncan’s sons and other expatriate lords lead an army against Macbeth. Macbeth asks the witches again about his future, and learns that he cannot be defeated by any man born of woman. He feels safe, but Macduff, born by Caesarean section, will kill him in the final battle.

Macbeth – The play opens amid thunder and lightning. Three Witches—the Weird Sisters—decide that their next meeting shall be with a certain Macbeth. A messenger reports to King Duncan of Scotland that his generals, Macbeth (who is the Thane of Glamis) and Banquo, have just defeated an invasion of Norway and Ireland, led by the rebel Macdonwald. Macbeth, the King’s kinsman, was particularly brave. While they wander into a heath, the three Witches who have been waiting greet them with prophecies. The first hails Macbeth as “Thane of Glamis”, the second as “Thane of Cawdor”, while the third proclaims that he shall “be King hereafter”. The Witches also inform Banquo he shall father a line of kings. Then, the Witches vanish, and another messenger from the King informs Macbeth he has become Thane of Cawdor. The first prophecy is thus fulfilled. Macbeth writes to his wife about the Witches’ prophecies and Lady Macbeth thinks a plan to murder him and secure the throne for her husband. At first Macbeth is doubtful, but Lady Macbeth convinces him. In the night of the visit, Macbeth kills Duncan. Early the next morning, Lennox, a Scottish nobleman, and Macduff, the loyal Thane of Fife, arrive. The porter opens the gate and Macbeth leads them to the king’s chamber, where Macduff discovers Duncan’s corpse. In a sham fit of fury, Macbeth murders the servants before they can protest their innocence. Macduff is immediately suspicious of Macbeth, but does not disclose his suspicions publicly. Fearing for their lives, Duncan’s sons flee, Malcolm to England and his brother Donalbain to Ireland. The rightful heirs’ flight makes them suspect, and Macbeth assumes the throne as the new King of Scotland as a kinsman to the dead king. Despite his success, Macbeth remains uneasy regarding the prophecy that Banquo would be the progenitor of kings. So Macbeth invites Banquo to a royal banquet and discovers that Banquo and his young son, Fleance, will be riding that night. He hires two men to kill Banquo and Fleance. Banquo is murdered but  Fleance is able to escape. At the banquet, Banquo’s ghost enters and sits in Macbeth’s place. Disturbed, Macbeth goes to the Witches once more. They conjure up three spirits with three further warnings and prophecies, which tell him to “beware Macduff”, but also that “none of woman born shall harm Macbeth” and he will “never be vanquish’d until Great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane Hill shall come against him”. Since Macduff is in exile, Macbeth massacres everyone in Macduff’s castle, including Macduff’s wife and their young children. Lady Macbeth eventually becomes purseued by  her guilt becomes mad. In a famous scene, she sleepwalks and tries to wash imaginary bloodstains off her hands. In England, Malcolm and Macduff plan an invasion of Scotland. Macbeth, now a tyrant, sees many of his thanes defecting. Malcolm leads an army, along with Macduff and Englishman Siward (the Elder), the Earl of Northumbria, against Dunsinane Castle. While encamped in Birnam Wood, the soldiers are ordered to cut down and carry tree limbs to camouflage their numbers, thus fulfilling the Witches’ second prophecy. Meanwhile, Macbeth delivers a famous nihilistic soliloquy (“Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow”) upon learning of Lady Macbeth’s death (the cause is undisclosed, but it is assumed by some that she committed suicide). A battle ensues, culminating in the slaying of the young Siward and Macduff’s confrontation with Macbeth. Macbeth boasts that he has no reason to fear Macduff, as he cannot be killed by any man born of woman. Macduff declares that he was “from his mother’s womb / Untimely ripped” (i.e., born by Caesarean section before his mother’s actual delivery)—and was therefore not “of woman born”. Too late, Macbeth realizes the Witches have misled him. A fight ensues, which ends with Macduff beheading Macbeth offstage, thereby fulfilling the last of the prophecies. In the final scene, Malcolm is crowned as the rightful King of Scotland, suggesting that peace has been restored to the kingdom. However, the witches’ prophecy concerning Banquo, “Thou shalt [be]get kings”, was known to the audience of Shakespeare’s time to be true, as James I of England was supposedly a descendant of Banquo.

 

A Midsummer night’s dream – Hermia, a girl of high social class, refuses to marry Demetrius, the man chosen by her father, because she is in love with Lysander. Hermia and Lysander escape through the forest. Helena, Hermia’s friend, rejected by Demetrius, reveals him the plan and they follow Hermia and her lover. Meanwhile, to punish Titania, the queen of fairies, king Oberon asks Puck to pour a potion into her eyes while she is sleeping. It will make her fall in love with the first living thing she sees on waking. But Puck pours the juice on the wrong people: Lysander and Demetrius fall in love with Helena, and Titania falls in love with Bottom. He is an artisan-actor rehearsing in the forest with his company and Puck has transformed him into a donkey. Eventually all misunderstandings will be cleared and the couples will be reunited.

The Tempest – After attending his daughter’s wedding in Tunis, Africa, King Alonso of Naples sails for Italy with his court and Antonio, duke of Milan. They encounter a violent storm, and are shipwrecked on a strange island inhabited by the magician Prospero who has provoked the storm. Prospero – former Duke of Milan exiled by Antonio – and his daughter Miranda live on the island together with Ariel, a spirit at Prospero’s order, and the ugly, half human Caliban. After various adventures and magic tricks, Prospero pardons Antonio, gives up his magic art and sails for Naples to celebrate the marriage of Miranda and Alonso’s son Ferdinand.

Othello – Iago is Othello’s officer and expects to be promoted to lieutenat. When the African General gives the post to Cassio, Iago plots revenge on both of them. He has Othello denounced for an illicit relationship with Desdemona, but Othello demonstrates that their love is innocent and asks to marry her. The Duke orders Othello to sail to Cyprus and stop the Turskish invasion. In Cyprus Iago gets Cassio drunk so that Othello deprives him of his rank. Then Iago convinces Cassio to ask Desdemona to plead for him. In the meantime he insinuates to Othello that Desdemona is Cassio’s lover and even builds up evidence of her unfaithfulness. Othello, eaten with jealousy, kills Desdemona in her bed and commits suicide when he discovers the truth.

Romeo and Juliet – Verona. The noble families Capulet and Montague have been feuding for a long time. Romeo, the son of the Montagues, and Juliet Montecchi meet at a ball, fall in love and decide to get married at once with the help of Friar Lawrence. Unfortunately Romeo is involved in a duel between his friend Mercutio and Tybalt, Juliet’s cousin. When Tybalt kills Mercutio, Romeo attacks Tybalt in a fury and kills him. To punish Romeo for breaking peace in Verona, the Prince banishes him to Mantua. Juliet wants to reach Romeo and asks Friar Lawrence to help her. The Friar gives her a sleeping potion which makes her fall into a deep sleep similar to death. Romeo, hearing that Juliet id dead, rushes to her tomb and, after a last kiss, drinks poison and dies.
When Juliet awakes, she sees Romeo’s body and stabs herself.

The Merchant of Venice – Bassanio, a young Venetian gentleman, asks Antonio for money and gets it from Shylock using the merchant’s name and guarantee. Shylock is a Jewish money-lender, whose daughter Jessica elopes with Lorenzo, a friend of Bassanio’s. The couple find refuge in Belmont where Bassanio lives with his recently conquered wife Portia. News that Antonio cannot pay the money back reaches Bassanio and he hurries to Venice to help Antonio. His wife Portia, disguised as a lawyer, defends Antonio from Shylock’s legal request: a pound of flesh. Accused of attempting the life of a Venetian citizen, Shylock is deprived of all his properties and forced to become Christian.

King Lear  – King Lear decides to retire and to divide his kingdom among his three daughters – Goneril, Regan and Cordelia – according to their affection for him. Goneril and Regan make false profession of love and get half the kingdom each. Cordelia, who speaks real words of love and loyalty, is disinherited and banished. When Goneril and Reagan refuse to accommodate King Lear and turn him out of doors into a storm, the old King realizes he has been unjust and unwise. But too late: he and Cordelia are taken prisoner, Cordelia is killed and King Lear, now a broken man, also dies.

Richard III (1452 – 1485) – Richard III  Richard was the last Yorkist king of England, whose death at the Battle of Bosworth effectively ended the Wars of the Roses. He has become infamous because of the disappearance of his young nephews – the Princes in the Tower – and through William Shakespeare’s play ‘Richard III’.

Richard was born on 2 October 1452 at Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire. His father was Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and his mother Cecily Neville. Richard had a claim to the English throne through both parents. The withered arm, crooked back and limp of legend are almost certainly fabrications.
His father’s conflict with Henry VI was a major cause of the Wars of the Roses, which dominated Richard’s early life. His father and older brother died at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460. In 1461, Richard’s brother, Edward, became Edward IV and created him duke of Gloucester. In 1470, Edward and Richard were exiled when Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne. The following year, they returned to England and Richard contributed to the Yorkist victories at Barnet and Tewkesbury which restored Edward to the throne.
When Edward died in April 1483, Richard was named as protector of the realm for Edward’s son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. As the new king travelled to London from Ludlow, Richard met him and escorted him to London, where he was lodged in the Tower. Edward V’s brother later joined him there.
A publicity campaign was mounted condemning Edward’s marriage to the boy’s mother, Elizabeth Woodville, as invalid and their children illegitimate. On 25 June, an assembly of lords and commoners endorsed these claims. The following day, Richard III officially began his reign. He was crowned in July. The two young princes disappeared in August and were widely rumoured to have been murdered by Richard. A rebellion raised by the Duke of Buckingham in October quickly collapsed, but Buckingham’s defection, along with his supporters, eroded Richard’s power and support among the aristocracy and gentry. In August 1485, Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, who was a Lancastrian claimant to the throne landed in South Wales. He marched east and engaged Richard in battle on Bosworth Field on 22 August. Although Richard possessed superior numbers, several of his key lieutenants defected. Refusing to flee, Richard was killed in battle and Henry Tudor took the throne as Henry VII.

As You Like it – Rosalind, the daughter of a banished duke falls in love with Orlando the disinherited son of one of the duke’s friends. When she is banished from the court by her usurping uncle, Duke Frederick , Rosalind takes on the appearance of a boy calling herself Ganymede. She travels with her cousin Celia and the jester Touchstone to the Forest of Arden, where her father and his friends live in exile. Themes about life and love, including aging, the natural world, and death are included in the play. New friends are made and families are reunited. By the end of the play Ganymede, once again Rosalind, marries Orlando. Orlando and Rosalind, Oliver and Celia, Silvius and Phebe, and Touchstone and Audrey all are married in the final scene. Oliver becomes a gentler, kinder young man so the Duke  changes his ways and turns to religion and so that the exiled Duke, father of Rosalind, can rule once again. Act II, Scene 7 features a great soliloquy by William Shakespeare which begins:

“All the world’s a stage
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances,
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages…”

Measure for Measure – This drama is classified as a comedy play by William Shakespeare. However it is also referred to as a ‘problem play’, because it cannot be easily described as either a tragedy or comedy. The story of the plot centres on Angelo who has been empowered by the Duke of Vienna to rule his land, whilst he wanders about disguised as a friar to investigate the moral decay of his dukedom. Resorting to an old law against fornication to enforce his strict standards of morality, Angelo proceeds to condemn fornicators to death. One of these fornicators is Claudio , a young man who has had pre-marital sex with his fiancee. Claudio’s sister Isabella pleads for her brother’s life. Angelo’s lust is aroused and he uses his power to blackmail Isabella into his bed. Fortunately the Duke overhears. Angelo ends up in the bed of Mariana , a woman from his undisclosed past. Claudio is allowed to live happily ever after with his fiancee, and the virtuous Isabella ends up the Duke of Vienna’s bride.

Much Ado About Nothing – This drama is one of the great comedy plays by William Shakespeare. The play revolves around two pairs of lovers, Beatrice and Benedick and Claudio and Hero. The main plot of the play revolves around obstacles to the union of the two young lovers – Claudio and Hero. The love-hate relationship of Beatrice and Benedick features the “merry war” of the sexes. Benedick thinks he hates Beatrice but really loves her and Beatrice who thinks she hates Benedick but really loves him

The Tempest – King Alonso of Naples and his court sail for Italy after attending his daughter’s wedding in Tunis, Africa. They encounter a violent storm, and shipwreck on a strange island inhabited by the magician Prospero who has provoked the storm. Prospero – formerly King of Naples – and Miranda live in a cave on the island together with Ariel, a spirit at Prospero’s order, and the ugly, half human Caliban. After various plots and magic tricks of Prospero the play ends with the marriage of Miranda and Alonso’s son and the tempest is calmed.

 

Summary of As You Like It

Rosalind, the daughter of a banished duke falls in love with Orlando the disinherited son of one of the duke’s friends. When she is banished from the court by her usurping uncle, Duke Frederick , Rosalind takes on the appearance of a boy calling herself Ganymede. She travels with her cousin Celia and the jester Touchstone to the Forest of Arden, where her father and his friends live in exile. Themes about life and love, including aging, the natural world, and death are included in the play. New friends are made and families are reunited. By the end of the play Ganymede, once again Rosalind, marries Orlando. Orlando and Rosalind, Oliver and Celia, Silvius and Phebe, and Touchstone and Audrey all are married in the final scene. Oliver becomes a gentler, kinder young man so the Duke changes his ways and turns to religion and so that the exiled Duke, father of Rosalind, can rule once again. Act II, Scene 7 features a great soliloquy by William Shakespeare which begins:

“All the world’s a stage

And all the men and women merely players;

They have their exits and their entrances,

And one man in his time plays many parts,

His acts being seven ages…”

Summary of King Lear and Characters

This drama is one of the great tragedy themed plays by William Shakespeare. The themes of the play cover greed, betrayal, lust for power, and cruelty. The story of King Lear, an aging monarch who is headstrong old man who is blind to his weaknesses, decides to divide his kingdom amongst his three daughters, according to which one recites the best declaration of love. Goneril and Regan who are the selfish daughters of Lear who pretend to love him but later treat him cruelly. Cordelia who is the loyal and unselfish daughter. King Lear disowns Cordelia after confusing her honesty with insolence. The end of the play ends in death by various methods including poison and suicide. Cordelia dies and King Lear, now a broken man, also dies.

The Summary of Measure for Measure

This drama is classified as a comedy play by William Shakespeare. However it is also referred to as a ‘problem play’, because it cannot be easily described as either a tragedy or comedy. The story of the plot centres on Angelo who has been empowered by the Duke of Vienna to rule his land, whilst he wanders about disguised as a friar to investigate the moral decay of his dukedom. Resorting to an old law against fornication to enforce his strict standards of morality, Angelo proceeds to condemn fornicators to death. One of these fornicators is Claudio , a young man who has had pre-marital sex with his fiancee. Claudio’s sister Isabella pleads for her brother’s life. Angelo’s lust is aroused and he uses his power to blackmail Isabella into his bed. Fortunately the Duke overhears. Angelo ends up in the bed of Mariana , a woman from his undisclosed past. Claudio is allowed to live happily ever after with his fiancee, and the virtuous Isabella ends up the Duke of Vienna’s bride.

The Tempest

King Alonso of Naples and his court sail for Italy after attending his daughter’s wedding in Tunis, Africa. They encounter a violent storm, and shipwreck on a strange island inhabited by the magician Prospero who has provoked the storm. Prospero – formerly King of Naples – and Miranda live in a cave on the island together with Ariel, a spirit at Prospero’s order, and the ugly, half human Caliban. After various plots and magic tricks of Prospero the play ends with the marriage of Miranda and Alonso’s son and the tempest is calmed.

Summary of A Midsummer’s Night Dream
The play revolves around the adventures of four young lovers, a group of amateur actors and their interactions with the fairies who inhabit a moonlit forest. The story takes place in Midsummer and is a complex farce featuring

Hermia & Lysander and Helena & Demetrius enter the forest where Oberon, the King of the Fairies and his Queen, Titania, preside. Puck (or Robin Goodfellow) is a major character who is full of mischief and tricks. Other visitors to the enchanted forest include Bottom the weaver and his friends Snug, Snout, Quince and Flute the amateur dramatists who want to rehearse their terrible but hilarious version of the play Pyramus and Thisbe.

Summary of Much Ado About Nothing and Characters

This drama is one of the great comedy plays by William Shakespeare. The play revolves around two pairs of lovers, Beatrice and Benedick and Claudio and Hero. The main plot of the play revolves around obstacles to the union of the two young lovers – Claudio and Hero. The love-hate relationship of Beatrice and Benedick features the “merry war” of the sexes. Benedick thinks he hates Beatrice but really loves her and Beatrice who thinks she hates Benedick but really loves him

Summary of Hamlet and Characters

Prince Hamlet mourns both his father’s death and his mother, Queen Gertrude’s remarriage to Claudius, his father’s brother. The ghost of Hamlet’s father appears to him and tells him that Claudius has poisoned him. Hamlet swears revenge. He kills the eavesdropping Polonius, the court chamberlain. Polonius’s son Laertes returns to Denmark to avenge his father’s death. Polonius’s daughter Ophelia loves the Prince but his behaviour drives her to madness. Ophelia dies by drowning. A duel takes place and ends with the death of Gertrude, Laertes, Claudius, and Hamlet.

 

Shakespeare

THE TAMING OF THE SHREW
In the introduction Christopher Sly is a drunker tinker who is taken by a Lord and they go to see “The taming of the shrew”. In this opera after the first scene Christopher disappears.
The exhibition tells about Baptista Minola, a Lord in Padua, who has two daughters, the first is the ill-tempered Katherina and the second is the friendly Bianca. This one has two suitors, Gremio and Hortentio. In the meantime Petruchio, a gentleman of Verona, falls in love with Katherina. So thanks to Hortentio, Petruchio can enter Katherina’s house and they decide to marry. In the wedding day, they refuse the banquet and run away. They have a modest life and Petruchio compels Katherina to serve him and she is humiliated very often.
At the end of the opera, Bianca marries Lucentio and Hortentio marries a rich widow.

RICHARD III
Richard wants to get the crown of England from his brother Edward IV. He woos the widow, Lady Ann at the funeral of her father-in-law, King Henry VI. She yields to his advances and marries him. In the meantime, Richard organises the murder of his brother George, whom he has imprisoned in the Tower of London. Edward IV is ill and Richard, becomes his regent. He places the young sons of Edward in the Tower and consolidates his power with the help of Buckingham. The king dies and Richard is proclaimed king. The young princes are murdered in the Tower. Edward’s widow, Elizabeth, with the sons of her first marriage, fearing for their lives, flee. Buckingham is suspicious of Richard’s role in the murder, and he tries to raise an army against Richard. He dies. Richard plans to marry Edward IV’s daughter, Elizabeth. Henry Tudor makes war on Richard. On the eve of the battle Richard is haunted by the ghosts of his victims. He is killed in the battle and Henry Tudor succeeds him, becoming Henry VII of England. The play ends with him planning to marry Elizabeth and end the Wars of the Roses.

ROMEO AND JULIET
There are two important families in Verona, the Capulets and the Montagues.
Those families are rivals and often fight.
Count Paris asks the Capulets to marry their daughter Juliet, but they answer that the daughter is too young.
Meanwhile Romeo, Montague’s son, goes to a party in Capulet’s house hoping to see Rosaline, but at the party Romeo meets and falls in love with Juliet.
Capulet misunderstanding Juliet’s request agrees to marry her to Count Paris, but she does not want. So Juliet visits Friar Laurence to get an help and he gives her a drug that will put her in to a deathlike coma. She takes this drug the night before the wedding. Romeo does not know about the drug and he thinks that she is really dead.
So Romeo buys a poison and goes to her and when he sees her he drinks the poison.

MACBETH
Macbeth, one of King Duncan’s generals, meets three weird women while coming back from a Scottish rebellion.
The ladies are witches, and predict Macbeth to become Thane of Cawdor first, then King of Scotland instead of Banquo, another general of Duncan.
He does not believe them at first, but when the King makes him Thane of Cawdor thanks to his recent war successes, he starts considering the prophecy, and his wife with him.
Lady Macbeth convinces his husband to kill King Duncan by challenging his manhood.
Macbeth kills the king by stabbing him in the sleep with daggers that later he leaves behind, stained in blood, on some asleep servants drugged with wine by his wife.
Duncan’s sons, realizing their lives are in danger too, flee and join the English King Edward at his court.
Macbeth becomes King of Scotland and orders to kill Banquo and his son Fleance, who manages to flee.
King Macbeth, fearing Fleance could be a menace to his kingdom and disturbed by the sight of Banquo’s ghost, seeks the witches and learns from them that he has to beware of the thane of Fife, Lord Macduff, that no mortal will harm him and that he will be safe until Birnam Wood comes to his castle.
The king starts a reign of terror but he feels safe until he is told that the army of Malcom, son of Duncan, is moving toward him.
Macbeth loses to Macduff, his wife kills herself and Malcom who declares peace is crowned king.

HAMLET
Hamlet’s the king of Denmark dies for the bite of a serpent. As a matter of fact he is poisoned by his brother, Clausius and Gertrude, the queen , marries Clausius after only one month since her husband’s death. Hamlet, the king’s son, comes back from the university where he is staudying and meets his father’s ghost. He aska Hamlet to kill Claudius and avenge him. Clausius however know that he is aware of this crime so he plots Hamlet’s death. At the end Hamlet kills his uncle, Gertrude drinks a poison that is destinated to Hamlet and Hamlet dies too, for a fatal error.

THE TWELFTH NIGHT
Orsino is the king of Illyria and he loves Olivia but she is sad because her brother’s death so she refuses him.
Meanwhile, off the coast, a storm causes a terrible shipwreck. Viola is a castaway and his brother Seabstian is dead.
She decides to disguise herself as a man, taking on the name of Cesario, and goes to work in the
household of Duke Orsino.
Viola quickly becomes Cesario’s  page and falls in love with Orsino—a difficult love to pursue, as Orsino believes her to be a man.
The love triangle is complete: Viola loves Orsino, Orsino loves Olivia, and Olivia loves Cesario—and everyone is miserable.
Malvolio is a steward of Olivia’s household. as he is always trying to spoil their fun, Maria
engineers a practical joke to make Malvolio think that Olivia is in love with him. She forges a letter,
supposedly from Olivia, addressed to her beloved, telling him that if he wants to earn her favor, he
should dress in yellow stockings and crossed garters, act haughtily, smile constantly, and refuse to
explain himself to anyone. Malvolio finds the letter, assumes that it is addressed to him, and, filled with dreams of marrying Olivia and becoming noble himself, happily follows its commands. He behaves so strangely that Olivia comes to think that he is mad.
Sebastian, who is still alive after all but believes his sister Viola to be dead, arrives in Illyria along with his friend and protector, Antonio. Antonio has cared for Sebastian since the shipwreck and is
passionately (and perhaps sexually) attached to the young man—so much so that he follows him to
Orsino’s domain, in spite of the fact that he and Orsino are old enemies.

AS YOU LIKE IT
The play is set in the Forest of Arden, maybe intended for the Ardennes. The Duke Frederick has exiled his brother, the Duke Senior. The only person who can stay at the court is Rosalind, the Duke’s daughter and Frederick’s cousin, because she is the closest friend of Celia, Frederick’s daughter. Orland, who loves Rosalind, is bounded to go away. Frederick is angry and exiles Rosalind from the court, and she is followed by Celia. They disguise as a young boy and a poor lady, now called Ganymede and Aliena. They go to the Forest of Arden where the exiled Duke and his court are living. Orlando who is in the same wood, put love poems on the trees for Rosalind. Rosalind as Ganymede meets him, and “he” tells him that “he” will take him to Rosalind’s place. Phebe, a proud shepherdess, falls in love with Ganymede. But Silvius loves Phebe. Finally,Silviu, Phebe, Ganymede, and Orlando are brought together in an argument with each other over who will get whom. Ganymede says he will solve the problem, having Orlando promise to marry Rosalind, and Phebe promise to marry Silvius if she cannot marry Ganymede.

MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING
Leonato a nobilman of the city of Messina, lives with his daughter Hero, his niece Beatrice and his brother Antonio. He prepares to welcome some friends coming back from a battle, prince Don Pedro , his brother Don John and two fellow soldiers, Claudio and Benedick. When the company arrives, Claudio falls in love with Hero and they decide to get married. Beatrice and Benedick after a game, secretly fall in love with each other. But Don John decides to disrupt everyone’s happiness. He has his companion Borachio make love to Margaret, Hero’s serving woman, at Hero’s window in the darkness of the night, and he brings Don Pedro and Claudio to watch. Believing that he has seen Hero being unfaithful to him, Claudio, humiliated, accuses her of treason on the altar the day of their wedding. In the aftermath of the rejection, Benedick and Beatrice finally confess their love to one another. Fortunately, the heads of the local police overhear Borachio bragging about his crime, so they arrest both Borachio and Conrad, another of Don John’s followers. Finally everyone learns that Hero is really innocent, and Claudio, who believes she is dead, is sorry for her. Claudio, as punishment, tells all the city how innocent Hero is and Leonato wants him to marry a woman that looks much like Hero and when Claudio arrives to the altar the woman reveals herself: she is Hero. Benedick then asks Beatrice if she will marry him, and after some arguing they agree. The joyful lovers all have a merry dance before they celebrate their double wedding.

OTHELLO
Othello the Moor, a black warrior of the Venetian army, has secretly married a beautiful white woman called Desdemona, the daughter of Brabantio. Othello’s ensign, Iago, is angry with the Moor becuse he promoted another soldier called Cassio instead of him and because he suspects that Othello has had an affair with his wife. To get his revenge on Othello, Iago wants to make him think that Desdemona has been unfair to him with Cassio. Meanwhile, Iago manages to get a handkerchief from Desdemona that was given to her by Othello. He plants it on Cassio so that Othello can see it, and concludes that it is proof of their affair. Othello is so jealous that he orders Iago to murder Cassio, and then he strangles Desdemona. Right after that he finds out that Desdemona is innocent and that Iago has planned it all. Othello feels so guilty that he decides to kill himself and Iago goes to jail.

THE TEMPEST
The magician Prospero, rightful Duke of Milan, is deposed by his jealous brother Antonio and forced into exile on an island with his daughter Miranda. As soon as the ship passes near the island , Prospero arranges his revenge thanks to his magic, a storm that causes the sinking of the ship. To help him in is Ariel , a spirit. Caliban ,a strange being created by a witch, tries to abuse of Miranda to create a new breed and people the island and Prospero makes of him his slave to punish him. The storm causes the sinking of the ship Antonio , on which the King Alonso and his son Ferdinand also travel. The two, , separated by the wreck, belie they are both dead. Caliban, Trinculo and Stefano organize a rebellion against Prospero, but they fail. Despite Prospero’s attempts to control the lives of his neibourghs, the story ends happily with Ferdinand and Miranda in love with one another, and the reconciliation between Antonio and Prospero.

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