1215 – the magna charta

15th june 1215 – King John signs (firma) Magna Carta at Runnymede, England .

Henry II’s successor was Richard the Lionheart (1189-99) who went to Jerusalem for the third Crusade(terza crociata). During his absence from England his brother, John Lackland, (1199-1216) was obliged (fu obbligato) by the barons to sign Magna Charta (1215) a document which preserved (preservava) the rights (i diritti) of the barons, limited the rights of the king in feudal disputes (dispute feudali) , and stopped power abuses (abusi di potere) on the people. The reasons for this agreement (accordo) date back (risalgono) to the period of the Norman Conquest. England had for some years owned (aveva posseduto) land in France and barons had given the king both money and men to defend this territory. On his turn (dal canto loro), the king had always consulted the barons before raising (alzare) the taxes they had to collect (dovevano raccogliere) and before asking for more men for military service. This was all part of the Feudal System. While kings were militarily successful abroad (avevano successo nella battaglie all’estro), relations between the kings and the barons were good. Unfortunately John was not successful in his military campaigns abroad (champagne military) and his constant demands (richieste) for more money and men exasperated the barons who forced him (lo obligarono) to sign the magna Charta, a document paved the way (spianò la strada) to the first Model Parliament (1295) held (tenutosi) during the reign of Edward I (1272–1307).

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