The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth century Britain. Generally speaking, it represents the same tendencies that Symbolism or Decadence stood for in France, and may be considered the English branch of the same movement. It belongs to the anti-Victorian reaction and had post-Romantic roots. It took place in the late Victorian period from around 1868 to 1901, and is generally considered to have ended with the trial of Oscar Wilde.
The English decadent writers were deeply influenced by the homoerotic Oxford don Walter Pater and his essays published in 1867-1868, in which he stated that life had to be lived intensely, following an ideal of beauty. His Studies in the History of the Renaissance (1873) became a sacred text for art-centric young men of the Victorian age. Decadent writers used the slogan, coined by the philosopher Victor Cousin and promoted by Théophile Gautier in France, “Art for Art’s Sake” (L’art pour l’art) and asserted that there was no connection between art and morality.
The artists and writers of the Aesthetic movement tended to hold that the Arts should provide refined sensuous pleasure, rather than convey moral or sentimental messages. As a consequence they did not accept John Ruskin and Matthew Arnold’s utilitarian conception of art as something moral or useful. Instead they believed that Art does not have any didactic purpose, it need only be beautiful. The Aesthetes developed the cult of beauty which they considered the basic factor in art. Life should copy Art, they asserted. The main characteristics of the movement were: suggestion rather than statement, sensuality, massive use of symbols, and synaesthetic effects – that is, correspondence between words, colors and music.
Aestheticism had its forerunners in John Keats and Percy Bysshe Shelley, and among the Pre-Raphaelites. In Britain the best representatives were Oscar Wilde and Algernon Charles Swinburne, both influenced by the French Symbolists. Artists associated with the Aesthetic movement include James McNeill Whistler and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The movement had an influence on interior design. “Aesthetic” interiors were characterised by the use of such things as peacock feathers and blue-and-white china, both of which are commonly said to have been used as decorations by Oscar Wilde during his youth. This aspect of the movement was satirised in Punch magazine and in Gilbert and Sullivan’s operetta “Patience”.
Drama and Aestheticism.
During the late 19th century, ae. Arose as a movement of various artists who reacted against the materialism and commercialism of the Victorian industrial era.
Previously, there had been other two movements that had attacked the VICTORIANS, one was the Oxford movement, reverting to catholic rituals in the Church of England, the other was the artistic Pre-Raphaelite one, resorting to the virtues of Medioeval culture.
Both this background and the inspiration derived from the writings of the Oxford don, Walter Pater, who introduced the concept of Beauty and the search for Art for Art’s sake.
The artist began to isolate in the ivory tower in order to withdraw himself from the social problems. That new generation aimed to depart from the scientific materialism