Charles I was born on November 19th, 1600. He came to the throne in 1625. He was proud, but arrogant. His reign began badly in the disastrous wars he fought against Spain and France. Costly (costose) wars had left him short of money (a corto di denaro) and Charles turned to Parliament to ask them to raise (aumentare) taxes. Parliament refused to help him and so it was dissolved. Charles made him unpopular by attempting (cercando) to force (obbligare) a new prayer book onto the people of Scotland. They rose up (si ribellarono) against him and defeated the weak (debole) and badly led (comandante) English armies sent to fight them. Parliament was reformed and a new group known as the Puritans began to criticise the king. Charles led his soldiers into Parliament to arrest the Puritan leader John Pym, but he had already fled (fuggito). King Charles had enraged (fatto arrabbiare) the Parliament once again with his behaviour (comportamento) and he was forced to flee (fuggire) from London. The country was now divided and both sides raised their armies in a bloody civil war. The war began well for Charles, but his luck did not last (durare) for long. Parliament raised a new force called the New Model Army under the command of the brilliant General, Oliver Cromwell. He won great victories at the battles of MarstonMoor and Naseby. Charles and his Royalist armies soon crumbled (si divisero). The desperate King persuaded his old enemies the Scots to join (unirsi) him, but they were defeated at Preston. King Charles was arrested and then executed at Whitehall in 1649. During his days in prison in Carisbrooke Castle, on the Isle of White, Charles was allowed to play bowl (bocce) outside.